The basic structures of woven fabrics – plain weave, twill weave, and satin weave

The fabrics, whose yarns are perpendicular to each other in weft and warp directions, interweaving to form a certain pattern, are called woven fabrics.




The basic structure is the simplest and most basic structure in all kinds of fabric structures, and it is the basis for various changes and fancy structures. The basic structure includes plain, twill and satin weave.

1.Plain weave

Structure: Plain weave is the simplest of all fabrics. Its structure is one up and down, and the two alternate into a complete structure.



Features: The plain weave has the most interlacing point of weft and warp yarns. the yarns have more buckling. Therefore, the fabric is flat, firm, and have tighter appearance, harder hand feel and smaller elasticity than other fabrics. In actual use, various methods can be used according to different requirements, such as different thickness of warp and weft yarns, change of warp and weft density, and different twist and color, to get different special surface appearances.


Common plain weave fabric:

Plain weave is widely used in cotton, wool, silk and linen fabrics, such as plain fabric with smooth surface, poplin fabric with clear rhombic patterns, and grosgrain fabric with concavoconvex horizontal stripes, crepe fabric and georgette fabric, etc.

2.Twill weave

Structure: Passing the warp thread over two or more weft threads then under one or more weft threads and so on to create the characteristic diagonal pattern.



The twill weave has two types, one-side twill and a double-sided twill. The reverse side of the warp twill is the weft twill, but diagonal direction is opposite. The ratio of the two tissue points on the front and the back is the same, but the diagonal direction is opposite, which is called double-sided twill. The degree of inclination of the diagonal line is also different. The twill weave indicates the oblique angle of the twill by the angle α between the diagonal line and the horizontal line. As α increases, the larger the density is, the steeper the oblique line is. The twill of α>450 is an acute twill, the twill of α<450 is a slow twill, and when α=450, the warp and weft are equal. The twill weave has less interlacing points than the plain weave. It is softer and thicker and has good gloss, but not strong as plain weave fabric.


3.Satin weave

Structure and feature 

Satin is the most complex organization in the basic organization. It is characterized in that each warp yarn (or weft yarn) has only one single tissue point (organized point or weft tissue point), and there is a certain distance between the individual tissue points on the adjacent two yarns, and is flanked by Obscured by the long floating line or the long floating line, the surface of the fabric is almost entirely composed of a long floating line or a long floating line, so the cloth surface is smooth and even, the gloss is good, and the texture is soft.


Common satin fabric satin weaves have a wide range of applications. In the cotton and wool fabrics, five satin weaves are commonly used. In the silk fabric, eight satin weaves are used to obtain various different satin woven fabric.

Post time: Nov-06-2019